After translation, the posttranslational modification of amino acids extends the range of functions of the protein by attaching it to other biochemical functional groups (such as acetate, phosphate, various lipids and carbohydrates), changing the chemical nature of an amino acid (e.g. citrullination), or making structural changes (e.g. formation of disulfide bridges).
The post-translational modification can be a biochemical functional group, a change in the chemical nature of an amino acid, or a structural change. Some of these PTM:s, such as cyclisation, are covered in other sections on our website. Some of the more commonly asked for modifications are acetylation, citrullination, hydroxylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and sulphonation. Often the objective is to develop antibodies specific for these PTMs. This can all be done, and in many cases it is straightforward.
A note of consideration when it comes to these types of peptides is that the quality of the synthesis reagents is important, and in some cases crucial. It is perhaps most obvious in the cases of methylated Arginine and Lysine. For example, Lysine can be either mono-, di- or tri-methylated. Let's assume that you would like your peptide to have a tri-methyl Lysine. If the Lys(Me3) building block is contaminated by Lys(Me) and Lys(Me2), it will not be possible to separate the three peptide species in the HPLC purification procedure. The quality of the Lys(Me3) building block then becomes pivotal for the successful outcome of the project. As it turns out, only a precious few sources can deliver these building blocks at a high enough purity.
We offer custom production of peptides containing just about any form of modification, including the following;
Innovagen has serviced the research community since 1992. In that time we have delivered synthetic peptides with just about any modification you could think of. We have seen the importance of thinking quality in every step of the production of synthetic peptides, and we have learned that choosing the better source for raw materials is a key factor to success. You will particularly benefit from our experience when it comes to these modified peptides. Please take a few moments to read about our views on the production of high quality peptides, and on quality control.
Examples of references of customers using our custom peptide services, with post-translational modifiations, include;
J. C. Leo, H. Elovaara, D. Bihan, N. Pugh, S. K. Kilpinen, N. Raynal, M. Skurnik, R. W. Farndale & A.Goldman
First Analysis of a Bacterial Collagen-Binding Protein with Collagen Toolkits: Promiscuous Binding of YadA to Collagens May Explain How YadA Interferes with Host Processes.
Infection and Immunity, 2010, p. 3226-3236, Vol. 78, No. 7
U. Meyer-Hoffert, M. Hornef, B. Henriques-Normark, S. Normark, M. Andersson & K. Pütsep.
Identification of heparin/heparan sulfate interacting protein as a major broad-spectrum antimicrobial protein in lung and small intestine.
The FASEB Journal 2008 Vol. 22 p. 2427-2434
M.-J. Boucher, L. Selander, L. Carlsson & H. Edlund.
Phosphorylation Marks IPF1/PDX1 Protein for Degradation by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-dependent Mechanisms.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2006, 281, 6395-6403.
R. Hieta, L. Kukkola, P. Permi, P. Pirilä, K. I. Kivirikko, I. Kilpeläinen & J. Myllyharju.
The Peptide-Substrate-binding Domain of Human Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylases.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2003, 278, 34966-34974.
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